Every nation has its own flag. It is a symbol of a free country. The National Flag of India was adopted in its present form during the meeting of Constituent Assembly held on the 22 July 1947, a few days before India’s independence from the British on 15 August, 1947.
In India, the term “tricolour” refers to the Indian national flag. The National flag of India is a horizontal tricolor of deep saffron (kesari) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to three. In the centre of the white band is a navy blue wheel which represents the chakra. Its design is that of the wheel which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. Its diameter approximates to the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes.
Colours of the Flag:
In the national flag of India the top band is of Saffron colour, indicating the strength and courage of the country. The white middle band indicates peace and truth with Dharma Chakra. The last band is green in colour shows the fertility, growth and auspiciousness of the land.
This Dharma Chakra depicted the “wheel of the law” in the Sarnath Lion Capital made by the 3rd-century BC Mauryan Emperor Ashoka. The chakra intends to show that there is life in movement and death in stagnation.
Our National Flag went through various changes since its first inception. It was discovered during our national struggle for freedom. Some of the historical milestones in the evolution of our National Flag involve the following:
1. Flag of freedom fight – 1857
2. Flag of ‘Bhagini (Sister) Nivedita – 1905
3. Unofficial flag of India in 1906
4. The Berlin committee flag, first raised by Bhikaiji Cama in 1907
5. The flag used during the Home Rule movement in 1917
6. The flag unofficially adopted in 1921
7. The flag adopted in 1931. This flag was also the battle ensign of the Indian National Army
8. Flag of Azad Hind Sena
9. Official flag of independent India
On July 22, 1947, the Constituent Assembly adopted it as Free India National Flag. After the advent of Independence, the colours and their significance remained the same. Only the Dharma Charkha of Emperor Asoka was adopted in place of the spinning wheel as the emblem on the flag. Thus, the tricolour flag of the Congress Party eventually became the tricolour flag of Independent India.